Because full-spectrum CBD contains a variety of phytocannabinoids, it produces an “entourage effect” that engages both the CB1 and CB2 receptors in the brain — as well as other cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors throughout your body — for maximum neuroprotective and overall health benefits.
Other animal studies also have shown that activating the cannabinoid receptors in your brain may help to limit nerve cell damage and promote healing by enhancing blood flow to the brain.  In a 2002 study, researchers found that mice that were genetically engineered to lack CB1, a cannabinoid receptor found in the brain, had more severe brain damage and cognitive deficits after a TBI when compared to mice that had the CB1 receptor.
Unlike many prescription pain medications, CBD is non-addictive and will not lead to overdose. CBD does not cause side effects and will not result in increased tolerance that requires higher doses to achieve the same effect. CBD also can be used to treat other health conditions that are common in athletes, such as chronic pain, anxiety, and insomnia.
The Benefits of the “Entourage Effect”
When your brain is injured, it releases neurotransmitters and chemicals that cause inflammation, blood vessel injury, chemical imbalances, tissue damage, and cell death. These brain responses are called a “secondary injury cascade” and are responsible for many of the neurological problems associated with TBI.
But although anecdotal evidence suggests that CBD may be safe and effective for professional athletes, it also may show promise for the treatment of TBIs caused by youth sports, falls, car accidents and military combat injuries. And, researchers are investigating CBD as a potential treatment for other conditions that affect the brain, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and HIV-associated dementia.
In 1998, researchers published the results of a study on rats that demonstrated the neuroprotective benefits of CBD and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are two of the cannabinoids found in cannabis.  Although more research is required to fully understand the neuroprotective effects of CBD, recent studies have shown that CBD activates the cannabinoid receptors in your brain that are part of your body’s natural endocannabinoid system.
Although a severe TBI can be deadly or cause lifelong complications, even a mild TBI — which is commonly called a concussion — can cause symptoms that can last for days or weeks.
Spanish scientists, presenting at the 2016 conference of the International Cannabinoid Research Society, compared the impact of CBD and hypothermia (cooling) on newborn piglets deprived of oxygen because of an ischemic injury. Hypothermia is typically the go-to therapy for treating newborn infants after a stroke. But in this animal model, the administration of CBD was more effective than hypothermia in protecting neonatal brain function. Preliminary data suggests that a synergistic combination of CBD and hypothermia may produce the best results.
Cannabidiol is considered to be a promiscuous compound because it produces numerous effects through dozens of molecular pathways. Writing in 2017, Mayo Clinic neurologist Eugene L. Scharf noted that the scientific literature has identified more than 65 molecular targets of CBD . This versatile plant cannabinoid is highly active against brain ischemia, modulating many of the molecular and cellular hallmarks of TBI pathology.
CB 2 & Neurogenesis
In 2002, the Journal of Neuroscience reported that the impact of induced cerebral ischemia is much more severe in CB 1 knockout mice than in “wild type” mice with cannabinoid receptors. The absence of CB 1 was shown to exacerbate TBI -related brain damage and cognitive deficits, indicating that cannabinoid receptors play an important role in neuroprotection.
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Shohami E, Cohen-Yeshurun A, Magid L, Algali M, Mechoulam R. Endocannabinoids and traumatic brain injury. Br J Pharmacol. 2011 Aug;163(7):1402-10. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01343.x. Review. PubMed PMID : 21418185; PubMed Central PMCID : PMC3165950 .