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cannabidiol definition

Sour Tsunami : One of the first strains bred for its CBD content, this cultivar typically sports a 1:1 ratio of CBD to THC.

The scientists behind this study noticed that researchers had been utilizing pure, single-molecule CBD, which resulted in a bell-shaped dose-response curve. This curve indicates that CBD’s efficacy plummets at very high and very low doses.

Research into CBD has been conducted for the following conditions.

Industrial hemp and whole-plant marijuana

The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol is a non-intoxicating molecule that results from the heating, or decarboxylation , of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). Most cannabis cultivars have lower concentrations of CBD than THC. However, following an explosive discovery in 2009 , droves of CBD-rich cultivars began cropping up across the US.

CBD directly interacts with several proteins in the body and central nervous system, a few of which are components of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) . CBD has an affinity for both the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Our bodies have several other receptor proteins that participate in the endocannabinoid system, such as GPR3, GPR6, TRPV1, and TRPV2, for example. CBD binds to all of these, and its possible anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects may occur through these pathways.

(Photo by: Gina Coleman/Weedmaps)

Industrial hemp contains far less CBD by weight than CBD-rich cultivars such as Harlequin or Sour Tsunami. A single 10 milliliter dose of CBD requires the cultivation and extraction of significantly more hemp than whole-plant marijuana, thus raising the risk of exposing users to more contaminants. Hemp is classified as a bio-accumulator, or a plant that naturally absorbs toxins from the soil.

Given CBD ’s reputation as a popular, artisanal remedy, one would think that Epidiolex would command a lot of “off label” attention. After all, physicians often prescribe pharmaceuticals off label to treat conditions that were not the actual focus of clinical trials. But the costly price tag for Epidiolex (more than $30,000 annually) precludes off label prescribing as well as affordable access for tens of millions of Americans without health insurance.

Cannabidiol ( CBD ) is a naturally occurring compound found in the resinous flower of cannabis, a plant with a rich history as a medicine going back thousands of years. Today the therapeutic properties of CBD are being tested and confirmed by scientists and doctors around the world. A safe, non-addictive substance, CBD is one of more than a hundred “phytocannabinoids,” which are unique to cannabis and endow the plant with its robust therapeutic profile.

Cutting-edge science has shown that the endocannabinoid system is dysregulated in nearly all pathological conditions. Thus, it stands to reason that “modulating endocannabinoid system activity may have therapeutic potential in almost all diseases affecting humans,” as Pal Pacher and George Kunos, scientists with the U.S. National Institutes of Health ( NIH ), suggested in a 2014 publication.

CBD Oil

The advent of potent cannabis oil concentrates, non-intoxicating CBD -rich products, and innovative, smokeless delivery systems has transformed the therapeutic landscape and changed the public conversation about cannabis.

Many hemp-derived CBD oil products are mislabeled as to cannabidiol and THC content. And poorly processed CBD oil may be tainted with toxic solvent residues, pesticides, corn syrup, artificial flavors and colors, and other contaminants.

CBD oil has been touted as a curative for the sick and a preventive for the healthy, an all-purpose palliative for pets as well as people of all ages.

But the DEA kept cannabis and CBD (when derived from a cannabis plant with more than 0.3 % THC ) on Schedule I as an illegal narcotic. In the world according to Uncle Sam, pharmaceutical CBD is officially the only good cannabinoid while the rest of the plant remains an ‘evil’ weed.

Uribe-Marino A, Francisco A, Castiblanco-Urbina MA, et al. Anti-aversive effects of cannabidiol on innate fear-induced behaviors evoked by an ethological model of panic attacks based on a prey vs the wild snake Epicrates cenchria crassus confrontation paradigm. Neuropsychopharmacology 2012;37(2):412-21. View abstract.

Ligresti A, Moriello AS, Starowicz K, et al. Antitumor activity of plant cannabinoids with emphasis on the effect of cannabidiol on human breast carcinoma. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006;318(3):1375-87. View abstract.

Collin, C., Davies, P., Mutiboko, I. K., and Ratcliffe, S. Randomized controlled trial of cannabis-based medicine in spasticity caused by multiple sclerosis. Eur.J.Neurol. 2007;14(3):290-296. View abstract.

Interactions ?

Pretzsch CM, Voinescu B, Mendez MA, et al. The effect of cannabidiol (CBD) on low-frequency activity and functional connectivity in the brain of adults with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). J Psychopharmacol. 2019:269881119858306. View abstract.

Woelfl T, Rohleder C, Mueller JK, et al. Effects of Cannabidiol and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol on Emotion, Cognition, and Attention: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Experimental Trial in Healthy Volunteers. Front Psychiatry. 2020;11:576877. View abstract.

Wade, D. T., Makela, P., Robson, P., House, H., and Bateman, C. Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Mult.Scler. 2004;10(4):434-441. View abstract.

Pretzsch CM, Freyberg J, Voinescu B, et al. Effects of cannabidiol on brain excitation and inhibition systems; a randomised placebo-controlled single dose trial during magnetic resonance spectroscopy in adults with and without autism spectrum disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019;44(8):1398-1405. View abstract.